Inter Press Network

Tuesday, September 21, 2004

US and Israel Gunning for Syria

by Hassan Tahsin

The objectives pursued by the UN Security Council seem to have changed. Instead of working to solve international conflicts through peaceful means and safeguard world peace and security, the Council is now threatening UN member countries with invasion, occupation or at least sanctions. It is all done in compliance with orders from the big powers who are only interested in pursuing their own interests.

Our region has seen a few examples in recent weeks. Sudan was threatened with military intervention and toppling of its government. Then came Lebanon, which too was threatened with sanctions for no reason other than that of exercising its right as a sovereign nation to amend its constitution with the approval of its Parliament. Next was Syria, which was also threatened with military intervention and sanctions if it did not withdraw its forces from Lebanon. What was forgotten was that the forces were there at the request of the Lebanese government and Parliament.

Everyone in the Arab world is now asking if there is going to be a war and when. All indications are that Israel, led by a warmonger like Ariel Sharon, is finding the time ripe to launch a strike against those Arab countries that oppose its terrorism against Palestinians. It would exploit the fear of terrorism currently gripping the world and America’s hostility for Arab and Muslim countries to launch its war.

By all accounts, the next move by the US-Israeli axis would be to eliminate the Syrian Army, in the same manner that the US-led coalition destroyed the Iraqi Army. This is important given the strong relations between Syria and Iran, a country the United States includes in its Axis of Evil. Knocking out Syria would secure Israel from north and east, open the way for Jewish penetration and expansion in the region.

Israel now considers striking Syria a top priority. Until very recently there was not enough justification for such aggression. Then came the Lebanese move to extend the term of the country’s president prompting Western powers to force the Security Council to pass an illegal resolution, No 1556, thus putting Syria in the firing line. The Israeli plan envisages its own army hitting selected targets in Syria while the American forces would strike Hezbollah positions.

Just as US Secretary of State Colin Powell presented before the Security Council a pack of lies and forgeries drawing a scary scenario of the awesome arsenal of weapons of mass destruction that Saddam had stockpiled and which could be launched in 45 minutes as “justifications” for invading Iraq, Israel has unloaded its own slew of lies before the world body. It has accused Syrian President Bashar Assad of making alliances with extremist religious groups opposed to the American presence in Iraq and of supporting “Palestinian terrorism” in reference to the legitimate national resistance against occupation and also of cooperating with Iran and Hezbollah to threaten its security.

Israel accuses Syria of developing new types of weapons and other sophisticated military hardware and of training and arming the “terrorist” Palestinian resistance. It further claimed that Syria had identified some 40 military and civilian sites inside Israel to be struck and 11 Israeli commanders to be assassinated. In addition, Israel is collecting material to bring the Syrian president before an international court as one who supports terrorism.

It must however be stressed that America will find in Syria a situation totally different from that in Iraq. Saddam Hussein was hated in the Arab world, but BASHAR enjoys the trust and support of his people and those in the region. President Bush and his neocon mafia may lie to the American people, but after tasting the ferociousness of Iraqi resistance, they know that they can’t afford another “victory” of the same type. Attacking Syria means a war in the Middle East that would spare no one — America and Israel including.

These facts make it imperative that, no matter how complicated the problems are, solutions should be sought through peaceful means.


Contributions Of Iran To The Global Civilization

"Persia" is the Greek name of Pars, a province of modern day Iran. Meanwhile, the name Iran (Land of the Aryans) is derived from the Aryan people, who first moved from Central Asia, and settled in what is now Iran, some 30,000 years ago. And here are some of the most important contributions of the people of Persia or Iran, to the world civilization:

1. The first human civilization - - The Persian Civilization (Eilam); It was ahead of Egypt by 500 years, of India, by 1,000 years, and of China, by 2,000 years, of Greece by 3,000 years, and of Rome, by 4,000 years! According to Professor Arthur A. Pope, the famous Orientalist (A.H. Saidian, Iran: Land and the People, Tehran 2001 P. 358)

Professor Pope also believes that the world owes its greatest industrial developments, in the early stages, to the Persian Civilization! (Ibid).
Another Orientalist, the French Professor Kalamar of the Sorbonne University of Paris believes that: The Persian Civilization is the mother of all civilizations! (Ibid).

2. The first empire in the world, the Persian Empire (from the Indus River down to the Danube River in Europe and up to the Nile River in Africa;Central Asia, present day Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Azirbaijan, Armenia, Palestine, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Macedonia, Cyprus,Lydia and up to the borders of Greece. It stretched from Ethiopia to India, with 127 provinces and 28 different nationalities).
"The Greeks and Romans later copied the best features of the Persian Method of Governing the Empire. (World History, Philip Groisser, New York, 1970, p. 17).

3. Cyrus the Great conquered Babylonia, Assyria, Media and India; His son Cambodia (any influence on the Cambodian People?) added Egypt later, and for the first and the last time in history, all the governments of the known world were ruled under one color!

4. Insurance by Government was started during Cyrus the Great of Persia. (Gardeshgari, Iran, March 2000).

5. Weight, Money and Measurements were standardized in Persia, for the first time, some 2, 500 years ago (Gardeshgari, March 2000)

6. Sanskrit, which is the mother of all modern languages, was born in Iran, before it went to India (Gardeshgari, Aug. 2001).

7. The Stone Age, which dates back some 70, 000 years ago, was started in Iran, the cradle of the earliest human civilization! (Gardeshgari, July 2000).

8.In Iran today, there are 1.2 million historical sites, discovered so far, with some 70,000 historical moulds (Gardeshgari, July 2000).

9. The first accounting tools were found in Iran, belonging to 9,000 years ago. (Gardeshgari, March 2000).

10. The first brick invention took place in Iran. (Gardeshgari, Iran, March 2002).

11. The world's greatest masonry work is Perspolis, Iran. (Gardeshgeri, Iran, March, 2000).

12. The architecture of castles originated in Persia thousands of years ago.

13. Iranian tales/legends are some 20, 000 years old.(Ibid)

14. According to the Shah-Namah of Ferdausi, the first caesarian operation (actually Persian-Birth) was done in Persia, some 5,000 years ago upon the birth of Rustom from his mother--- Rudabeh. (Gardeshgari, Iran, Jan. 2000.

15. According to the Persian Holy Books--- Avesta, the first anesthesia was practiced in Persia 1,000 B.C.

16. According to Professor Griffith Taylor of Australia, the homo sapiens (Caucassians) were originated from the Iranian Plateau, also known as the Land of Mahd(the Medes?) and scattered throughout the world some 17,000 years ago (15,000 B.C.)Gardeshgari, Iran, Jan. 2001.

No wonder, the famous Orientalist, Professor Arthur Pope said: "Western world has a vast unpaid debt to the Persian civilization!" Also Hegel, the great German Philosopher, wrote: The beginning of evolution of man starts with the history of Persia (Hegel, Philosophy of History p. 174).

17. Some paintings in Lorestan caves in Persia, that show a horse-riding man, are 17,000 years old! (15,000 B.C.) (Gardeshgari, Iran, Jan. 2001).

18. The original homeland of the Chaldeans (Father Abraham?) was Susa, Iran. The word Chaldean comes from Khald, which comes from Kurd (Kurdish) who were originally Tajiks (Gradeshgari, Iran, Sep. 2000).

19. According to the Encyclopedia Britanica, "It may well be proved eventually that the human race evolved in Central Asia or Iran" (Gardeshgari, Iran, Sep. 2000).

20. According to the Indian Professor, Mereji Baba Kolka: A group of Iranian migrants were settled along the Nile River and founded the Egyptian civilization, thousands of years ago! (Gardeshgari, Iran, March 2000).

21. Sumerians were originally Iranians from Kurdestan. So were the Chaldeans, Babylonians, Assyrians, Achadians; All of them spoke Chaldean, as their original language.

22. According to Professor Filder Petry : The civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia are actually branches of the older Culture of Eilam (Persia), which dates back to 6-10 thousand years ago! (Gardeshgari, Iran, March 2000).

23. The Turkish People are a result of the mixture of the early Iranians, and the Chinese; Semites and Egyptians, Palestinians and Arabs, are the mixtures of Iranians and Africans; while the Indians are a mixture of Iranians (Brahman) and the native blacks of India, Dravidians. (Gardeshgari, March 2000 p. 47).

24. The history of first people of Persia goes back some 30,000 years ago (28,000 B.C.) Gardeshgari, Iran, March 2000).

25. The oldest rock relief in the world is the Bistoon rock relief in Persia some 2,500 years old.

26. The most mammoth ziggurat was constructed in Persia, near the historic city of Susa, thousands of years ago.

27. The biggest thatch construction also took place in Kerman, Persia, some 2,000 years ago.

28. King Darius of Persia wrote the first Human Rights Charter, some 2,500 years ago. It is still engraved in the Alvand Mountain (Ganj-Nameh), near the ancient Persian Capital of Hagmataneh (Present City of Hamadan).
It was this concept of Human Rights, freedom of religion and the equality of all races that lead to the freedom of the Jews, from the captivity of Babylon, by Cyrus the Great of Persia (539 B.C.).

29. While all other world powers persecuted and discriminated against the Jews (e.g. The Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Romans and later Germans and the Russians etc.) the Persians were the only world power who actually liberated and protected the Jews (the only monotheistic religion of that time). By doing so, the Persians pioneered the freedom of religion and culture of the minorities in the world. (While some European conquerors, like Alexander the Great, destroyed Persepolis and other areas, or exiled their people, the Persian kings supported the local culture and religion).

30. The first World Super-Highway, that connected the East and the West, was the Silk Road. It joined China to Europe; and its main part was Central Asia (Ancient Persia) with its many Caravans, Caravansarais, Bazaars, etc. etc.

31. The first time that the Navy was used in a Military Operation was by the Persian Army some 2,500B.C.

32. The first time that the ships were used as bridge to cross the river, was done by King Darius, who crossed the Nile and conquered Egypt.

33. The first ruler who planned and constructed the Suez Canal in Egypt was King Xerxes of Persia (539 B.C.).

34. The first time that a canal was built to connect two seawaters was by King Xerxes of Persia, who built the Xerxes' canal, near Greece, and attacked Greece, during the Persian Wars, 500 B.C. (International Herald Tribune, Nov. 15, 2001).

35. One of the earliest Legal Codes in the world is called The Law of the Medes and the Persians (the "unchangeable").

36. The first system of federal government was started in the Persian Empire. There were many Ostans (Stan or State, like what you see in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Hindu-stan, Uzbeki-stan, Etc.) that were run by the satraps or smaller kings (Shah) who were under the great king or Shahan-Shah (Kings' King).

37. The first secret service, called the eyes and the ears of the king, was started in Persia.

38. The first world leader, who was called great, was Cyrus the Great of Persia, some 200 years ahead of Alexander the Great!

39. Darius the Great of Persia established the First Tax System, Customs Duties, Official Records and The Legal Code, in the world level.

40. Countries of the world, whose names are originally Persian:

1) Afghanistan,

2) Iran,

3) Kazakhstan,

4) Azirbaijan (Fire Temples Land),

5) Turkministan,

6) Qirqizistan,

7) Tajikistan

8) Uzbikistan,

9) Pakistan (Land of the Pure),

10) Hindustan (also the Khalistan of the Sikhs).

41. Regions of the world, whose names are originated from Persian:

1) Dagestan (Caucasus),

2) Qara Bagh (Azirbaijan, also Afghanistan)

3) Baluchistan (Iran and Pakistan)

4) Rajastan (India)

5) Panjab or Punjab (India and Pakistan)

6) Waziristan (Pakistan)

7) Turkistan (China)

8) Kurdistan (Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria and Russia),

9) Bash-Kurtustan (Russia),

10) Hazara (Afghanistan, Pakistan)

11) Kafiristan,

12) Noorestan (Afghanistan)

13) Possibly, the Iranon tribes of the Southern Philippines, the Ire-an of Palawan (Pahlawan?) in Southern Philippines, and the Irian Jaya of Indonesia, etc.

42. Capitals of the world, whose names are Persian:

1. Baghdad (Iraq), combination of Bagh (God, Garden) and Dad (justice / giving) A God given Place (Diosdado) or Garden of Justice (of King Anush Ravan or

Anushirvan of Persia).Actually, Baghdad was rebuilt by the Iranian Master Architect, Nou-Bakht, during the Abbasid Era (8th century A.D.).

2. Damascus (City of Musk, capital of Syria, the oldest existing city in the world).

3. Ashq Abad (or Eshqabad) capital of Turkmenistan.

4. Islamabad capital of Pakistan (Note: Abad in Persian means Town, City).

5. Baku (Baad Kubeh == the Windy City) capital of Azerbaijan...

6. Doshanbeh, capital of Tajikistan.

7. Tashkant (or Tashkent) capital of Qirqizistan.

8. Muscat or Muskat (==Musky, see Webster) the Capital of Oman, on the shores of the Persian Gulf.

9. Samarkant (or Samarqand) Capital of Uzbekistan.

10.Bandar Sri Begawan (Brunei).

11.Iravan (Yerevan) capital of Armenia (Armanestan).

12.Astana, Capital of Kazakhstan.

13.Moscow or Musk_va (City of Musk, from Moschi or Moschos==Persian word for musk).

43.Historical cities whose names are Persian:

1) Bukhara,

2) Samarkand

3) Khawrazm (Khiveh) in Central Asia,

4) Allahabad,

5) Ahmed Abad,

6) Heydar Abad,

7) Faiz Abad,

8) Jamshid Pour,

9) Mahmood Abad,

10) Shah Abad etc. (India)

11) Faisal Abad ,

12) Heydar Abad,

13) Ghazi Abad,

14) Khorram,

15) Chaman,

16) Islamabad, etc. (Pakistan)

17) Rajshahi

18) Cox Bazaar, (Bangladesh)

19) Mozaffar Abad (Pakistani Kashmir)

20) Kufah or Kuppah (Hillside) Iraq

21) Salman Pak (Pure) Iraq,

22) Ctesiphon (Iraq),

23) Halabcha (Iraq)

24) Khorsabad (Iraq)

25) Nippur (Iraq)

26) Khanaqin (Iraq)

27) Khan Azad (Iraq)

28) Diwaniyyah, (Iraq)

29) Bandar Sri Begawan (Brunei) (Note: Bandar in Persian means port city like Bandar Abbas)

30) Banda Aceh (Indonesia)

31) Shirwan (Caucasia)

32) Nakhjavan (Armenia)

33)Mozdok (==Mazdak,Caucasia)

34) Astarkhan (Russia)etc.

44. Famous Persian Queens/Princesses in History:

1) Queen Vashti of King Xerxes (see the Bible)

2) Queen Esther, a Jewish girl, born in Persia, who became the Queen of Persian King Xerxes (see Old Testament, Book of Esther Note: Esther's tomb is in Hamadan Iran today)

3) Queen Cleopatra of Egypt (Part Greek, Part Persian)

4) Queen Mumtaz Mahal (of Taj Mahal ) the Queen of the Mogul Emperor of India,

5) Princess Shahr Banu of the Sasan Dynasty, the daughter-in-law of Prophet Mohammad (wife of Imam Hosain)

6) Madam Maragel, one of the wives of Emperor Harun Rashid, the Abbasid Khalif (she was the mother of Mamoon, the most intellectual Khalifah in the history

of Islamic civilization, who translated and transferred all Greek philosophy and science books into Arabic language),

7) Puran-Dokht, the First Lady of Khaliffah Ma'moon,

8) Princesses in several Arab states of the Persian Gulf, including the mother of Shaikh Makhtum of the United Arab Emirates,

9) Nusrat Bhutto, the First Lady of Pakistan (1971-1978) wife of Pakistani Prime Minister, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.

10) Jihan Sadat, the First Lady of Egypt (1970-1982), wife of President Anwar Sadat of Egypt, etc.

45. In the Field of Fashion: Almost all the clothing and dresses of the Mogul Darbar in the Indian subcontinent (Including Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc) are Persian in origin; that includes the world famous Nehru Tunic or Shirwani, the Jinah Cap (made of lamb skin), the Shalvar Qamis, the Indian Turban, the Parsi Gara (Persian Style Embroidery in India), and a variety of shoes and other accessories, including the well known Sukarno cap in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Philippines, etc.

46. According to Professor Noel Malcon: Necktie (or cravat in European languages) came from the Croats (of Balkans) a branch of Iranian people who migrated from Persia, some 2000 years ago! Even the Serbs are originally from Persia.
(Ref. Malcolm, Noel: Bosnia, A Short History, Mc. Millan, London 1996). Also: CNN World Report, November 16, 2003.

47. In Jewelries: Almost all the famous jewelries of the Moguls of India (including those of Taj Mahal) were designed by Persian master designers. The well-known Kooh-i Noor is a Persian name, which means the mountain of light.
Incidentally, the word Jawaher (as in Jawaher Lal-Nehru) comes from the Persian word Gauhar (==Gem/Precious stone). Also the word La'l is another Persian word, meaning Ruby.

48.In Linguistic Influences:

1.For 700 years, Persian was the official language of the Moguls of Indian subcontinent (including Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc). Practically, every Moghal miniature contains not only the Persian arts and drawings, but also Persian poetry in Farsi Alphabet (a mixture of Persian and Arabic letters) in them.

2.Urdu language: the official language of Pakistan (and India) is a result of Marriage between Persian-Arabic (which came through Persia) and the Sanskrit. It is now spoken by some 800 million people around the world. ( Even Sanskrit itself was born in Persia, before it reached India, some 7,000 years ago!). Gardeshgari, August 2001.

3. Persian literature of the Indian subcontinent, with great writers and poets, the jewel of them being, the late Dr. Mohammad Iqbal,the National Poet of Pakistan (and India).

4. The names and surnames of almost all the people in Armenia (Armanestan) and the Armenians around the world, is totally or partially influenced by Persian language and culture. (Examples: Melekian, Saturian, Haturian, etc. etc.).

49. The first animal domesticated by man was goat, and it was done in Persia (Manila Bulletin, February 20,2001). Also the so-called Arabian Horse (originally Persian) See BBC Worlds' Simpson Report.(Note: In Arabic Language, horse is called Al-Faras, and Persia is called Al-Fars; while the Persian is called Al-Farsi!). Other animals, which were also first domesticated in Persia, are Sheep, Cow, and Camel.

50.The first people who used fish as food were the people around the Persian Gulf, (Philippine Daily Inquirer, 1998).

51.Nargileh/Hookeah or Shishah, the most famous pastime smoking pipe in the Ottoman Empire, and the rest of Asia and the Middle East, was invented in Persia (The Webster Dictionary).

52. The first time in the world that pearl was discovered and harvested (Some 5,000 years ago) was in the Persian Gulf state of Bahrain (which was part of the greater Persia, before the British colonization in the 19th century) CNN 2002.

53.Noodles were first invented in Persia.(Expat. Weekly, Manila 1996)

54.King Feraidun of Persia discovered winemaking method, some 3,000 year B.C.

55.Punch (the mixture of five beverages) although was popularized in British-India, is actually a Persian concoction. Panj in Persian means five, the number of the mixtures. (Philippine Daily Inquirer (Trivia) Feb. 2000)

Also the word Punjab (or Panjab == Five waters/rivers, in India and Pakistan) and Panjacila (Five Principles) of Sukarno in Indonesia, etc.

56.A Persian Alchemist, called Zacharia Alrazi discovered the Industrial Alcohol.(Al Razi is known in the west as Rhazes).

57.The first Beer-making techniques were discovered in Medeo-Persia, some 5-6, 000 years ago. (On the Net://www.udli./

The legend says that beer was first brewed by Ninkasi, some 3,500B.C. (For details, see the cult of Ninkasi). *Manila Bulletin,August 30, 2002.

58.Various musical instruments, including setar (cithara or cittern) and probably even guitar, Tamboor (Tambourine,) and Santour (Dulcimer). Other musical instruments are Tar (six-stringed, while Setar is four-stringed) and Ud, from which the medieval European lute developed; as well as Ney or Flute. (Iran Today, MFA, Tehran, 1976, p. 122). Iranian Music has even influenced the Flamenco tradition of Spain. (Iran Today p.122).

59.The first people, who started the "Birthday" celebration, where the Persian nobility and the royalty (So, "Happy Birthday" could originally be a Persian song?)

60.The first time that cake was used in a birthday party was by King Darius of Persia when he conquered Egypt. (500 B.C.)Philippine Daily Inquirer 1999.

61.Polo game was invented in Persia, some 500 years B.C. (Philippine Daily Inquirer 1998).

62.Wrestling, both as an art of war and sports, originated in Persia.

63.Poker was also invented in Persia some 3,000 years ago. It was called Aas. (The Philippine Daily Inquirer (Trivia) June 18, 2000.)

64.Chess, although originated in India, but was perfected and passed on to the West, through Persia, in 10th century; thus the words Chess (from Shah or King) Shakhmat (Shahmat) Rookh (rokh, or Chariot) etc.

65.The world's first known money appeared in Persia, 800 B.C.(Philippine Daily Inquirer,April 27,2002)

66. The words Paradise, Star, Bazaar, Caravan, Bank, Check, Roxan, Rose, Jasmine, Parthian-Shots, (==Parting Shots), Sugar (Shakar), Paw (Paa) Cow (Gau), Name (Naam); Nan (Bread) Nah (No), Bad, Behtar (Better), Mushk (Musk) Pajamas, Orange, Dervish, Khaki, Sepoy (Sepahy), Istana (Astana), Diwan/Divan, Pashmina (the Cashmere) Kooh-e- Noor (Mountain of Light), Pasha, Pesh Marga, Jungle, Magi, Magic, Magician, Mummy (Moumi) Sherryvalies (Shalvar), Kaftan (Caftan), Taffeta, Shawl, Shahtoosh, Sherpa, Bang,Band,Spinach, Saffron, Lemon, Woe! (Waa/Waay!), Gyn (Zan==Woman) Bakh-shish, Penta (Panj==five), Thou (Toh), Me (Man), Am (-am), Eyebrow (Abru), Lips (Lab), Pharao (and or son of Ra/Mithra, the Sun-god of Persia and later, Egypt) Buss (Buseh), Officer (Afsar/Afsara), Mouse (Moush), Ouch (Aaakh), Aura (Ahura), Aurora, Murra, Ricksha (Rakh'sh) as well as Pope (Papa/Baba), Pedar (Father) Madar (Mother) Nana (Nanny==Mother), Baradar (Brother) Brethren, Dokhtar (Daughter), etc. (almost 300 words in the English language)

67.The world's first public postal system was invented in the Persian Empire some 3,000 years ago.

68.Cuneiform, the earliest form of writing in the world. The cuneiform (wedge-shaped) was invented in what is known in History as the Medeo-Persia, some 5-600 years ago. (On the Net

69.The earliest known written documents, clay tablets, inscribed more than 4,000 years ago, were found in the Medeo- Persian region. These cuneiform texts include the earliest known creation myths, legal codes, medical prescriptions and recipes--- Ledgers, deeds, receipts --- and the list of everything, from the types of bird, to the musical instruments and the woods used to make them. (The Philippine Star, May 24, 2002).

70.The first calendar, composed of a year with 354 days, was invented in Medeo-Persia, 2000 B.C. (*Philippine Daily Inquirer April 27, 2002) And during the Islamic era, another new Calendar, but this time the most accurate calendar ever devised, in the whole history of mankind, came into being --- the Jalali Solar Calendar by the Persian mathematician and poet par excellence, the Great Omar Khayyam.

Omar Khayyam's Persian solar calendar is even more accurate than its Western Gregorian counterpart. (The Persian calendar has an error of only one day in every 5,000 years, as opposed to one in every 3,500 years for the Gregorian calendar). See Iran Today, MFA, Tehran, 1976 p. 130.

71.The latest archeological excavations show that, glass was first produced in the Asia-Minor region, some 4, 000 years ago. (Echo of Islam Magazine, Tehran, Iran. Aug. 1986).

72.The Art of Miniature was originated in Persia, by Maani (founder of Manichaeism) some 2,600 years ago, and reached China, later, (Gardeshgari, Iran, Sep. 2002)

73.The first operation on human skull in the world, took place in Persia, some 5,000 years ago! (Gardeshgari, Iran, Sep. 2002)

74.The origins of all the Indo-European languages, including Indian, German, English, Greek, Spanish, French and many other European languages today, are Iranian. (Gardeshgari, Iran, Sep. 2002) So, it should be called Irano-European, not Indo-European!

75.Did you know where the Saxons (of Saxony - - Germany and the Anglo-Saxons of Britain) came from? Well, the British Orientalist, Sir Percy Sykes, himself a Saxon, went around the world to look for their origin. He found out that the Saxons originated from the Central Iranian Plateau, which was called Sakstan (Present day Sistan- Baluchistan!) Gardeshgari, Iran, Sept. 2002. (How about the Saxan or Sassan Dynasty of Persia?).

76.The Iranian Capital of Tehran with 3,200 years of history has much greater historical treasures to offer to humanity than the entire country of Greece! (Gardeshgari, Iran, Sep. 2002)

77.Domes of the Byzantine Churches and Palaces were an adaptation from the Persian Architecture (Gardegari, Iran, Aug. 2000)

78.The world famous Holland Windmill is originally Persian, and the Dutch know about it! (Gardeshgari, Iran, Aug. 2001).

79.The Sumerians and Egyptians were the early migrants who came from the Iranian Plateau, thousands of years ago! (Gardeshagri, Iran, Sep. 2002).

80.The Sumerian Seamen (probably) discovered America, many centuries before Christopher Columbus. (Gardeshgari, Iran, Aug. 2001)

81.Archery of which the world famous Parthian Shots (or Parting Shots) is a good proof, originated in Persia.

82.Persian carpet, walnuts, hazelnuts, Pistachio nuts, pilau, kebab, beryani, shawarma, naan (bread) yoghurt, spinach, saffron (the world's most precious spice), rice, grapes, lemon, tulip, rose and perfume-were all originated in Persia.

83.Vertical windmill was invented in Persia, in 9th century, A.D. (Ancient Inventions p. 398). Also the hand operated mills.

84.Trousers called Shalwar, were invented by the Persians (while the Greek and the Romans preferred skirts).
Also the world famous shawl and many other innovations in clothing and shoe making, including a variety of hats and caps, etc. The word pajama in English comes from the Persian words Paa (leg) and Jameh (clothes).

85.The wheel was first invented in the cradle of civilization, the area that is known in History as Medeo-Persia, some 5,000 years ago.(*Philippine Daily Inquirer, April 27, 2002) See Persian wheel (Webster Dictionary).

86.Chariots of war were invented during Cyrus the Great of Persia (559-529 B.C.)

87.Cross, as an instrument of punishment for the criminals was first invented by the Persians, and it was
adopted by the Romans, some 2,300 years ago.(Philippine Daily Inquirer 1997) Also Swastika, etc.

88.Condom comes from the Persian word kandu or kondu, a long vessel made from the intestines of the animals and used for storing corn. Even today kondu (or kendu) is used in Persian language for the beehives as well as small clay storage for grains or food. (Condominium also?). Well, in Western Iran, there is a town called Kanduan [plural of kandu]. In that town, all the houses are dug in the mountain, on top of each other--a natural condominium).

89.Qanat or kanat, the underground water supply systems that are stretched several mmiles, were also invented in Persia.

90.Silo for grains preservation, some 1300 B.C. (Ettelaat, Iran Daily, 2001).

91.Baad-gir or Wind Shaft, the earliest form of modern air-conditioners,which was built on top of the roof in order to catch the fresh air and transfer it inside the building.

92.Aub-Anbar, the underground water reservoir that kept water cool and safe, for the community (Take note of the word Aub, the Persian word for water and its relation to Eu de Cologne, water of cologne; also the ending of the words like Mindan-ao, Dav-ao, Lan-ao,Mara-nao, Maguin-danao, Tugigar-ao, Suri-gao, Dan-ao (even Tamar-ao, Carab-ao?) as well as Aub-dast -- Filipino and Chinese Muslims' ablution with water, or Panj-ab, in India and Pakistan. etc.).

93.The first man who used an Airplane, to fly, was a legendary Persian King, by the name of Keykaus. He tied 4 big birds to his coach and placed some baits in a distance, dangling in front of the birds to catch. (And thus for him to fly!).

94.The oldest combination lock, (with secret numbers) was made some 800 years ago in Persia (Professor Arthur Pope, History of Persian Civilization. c/o Ettelaat Daily, Tehran, Iran, January 25, 2003).

95.Embroidery was first invented by the Scythian people (a branch of Persians) Ref. Webster Dictionary & CNN 2003.

96.The first travelers Inns called caravansaray (Inns of caravan) some of which still exist along the Silk Road, were built in Persia.

97.The largest mud-brick structure is the citadel of Bam, in Kerman Province of Iran. It is 2,000 years old!

98.Parasol (Decorative Umbrella), used as an honor, over the heads of the kings and the dignitaries, was invented in Persia, too.

99.Crown or Taj (See Taj Mahal)- the bejeweled headpiece for the King or the Queen, was first used in Persia.

100.The art of tile-work was invented and perfected in Persia, many centuries ago. It was copied by others, but was never equaled in its elegance and beauty.

101.Persian Blinds (or Persiana in Spanish and other European Languages) is the origin of what is known today as the Venetian Blinds (Webster Dictionary).

102.Blue Jars. The blue jars with floral designs (just like the Blue Domes) are also a Persian invention. The Chinese adopted these blue jars, after Genghis Khan invaded Persia in 13th century A.D.

103.Chewing gum (called saqqez) as well as a variety of other gums, including the well-known mummy or moumi (Webster Dictionary).

104.There are many other ancient inventions that are originated in the greater Persia. Some of them are as follows:

1) Needle

2) Weaving (like Taffeta, Shawl, etc.)

3) Roads/Hi-ways

4) Chain mail (for body defense)

5) Spoons and Forks

6) Boots

7) Gloves

8) Soap

9) Shampoo,

10) Perfume

11) Protocols and Etiquette

12) Turkish Bath

13) Dagger, hammer, axes

14) Military Marches,

15) Catapult,

16) Puppet Show

17) Tradition of syndication (for farmers, workers, professionals)

18) Dams

19) Sickle

20) Jars and Pots of clay

21) Brick making

22) Metals

23) Seals (Origin of printing?)

24) Wheel (Persian wheel)

25) Coins

26) Oil

27) Compass

28) Animal skin for writing

29) Measurement

30) Lighthouse

31) World map

32) Basic Human Flight

33) Military Fire Power

34) Alphabet

35) Early Electrical devices

36) Fast Reporting system (Like mores code, using mirror and sun) etc. (for more details see Iran: Land and the People, by Mr. A.H. Saidian, Tehran, 2001)

Iran, India, Pakistan and England. They are also one of the most financially successful communities in the world. (They established the first Cancer Hospital, and many other educational and Social Centers, including some of the oldest and biggest libraries in India - -see International Herald Tribune, April 24, 2003). Incidentally, the most well known poet of the Gujrati language in India is a Parsee by the name of Khabar-Dar.

114.The world's most expensive residence belongs to a Persian by a name of Dr. Nasser Khalili, who lives in England. His classical English Mansion is worth over $240 Million (Manila Bulletin, June, 12, 200).

115.For further details on Persian Culture, see Webster Dictionary for terms such as: Persiana, Persian ammoniac, Persian apple, Persian berry, Persian blue, Persian buttercup, Persian cat, Persian clover, Persian daisy, Persian date, Persian deer, Persian earth, Persian green, Persian iris, Persian lamb, Persian lawn, Persian lilac, Persian melon, Persian nightingale, Persian rose, Persian wheel, etc.

116.In the fields of Religion and Philosophy: The oldest living religion in the world, is Zoroastrianism, the ancient religion of Persia, (Philippine Star, Jan. 26, 2002).

117. The first divinely revealed religion, which still exists today is Zoroastrianism. No other religion has influenced other world Religions like Zoroastrianism. It has influenced Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, (Mahayana), Manicheanism and the Pagan European Cults. Over half of the world has virtually accepted a significant portion of Zoroastrian teachings. Many Christian traditions as well as some of its Philosophy are actually the adaptations from the Zoroasterianism and Mithraism, the Persian Religion of Sun god worshipping. Here are some examples:

In Islamic Sciences and Islamic Civilization:

The Persians also played the greatest role in the development of the Islamic Sciences and Islamic Civilization, as well as the preservation and spreading of it, in the world, as follows:

134.Salman Al-Farsi was the first person to translate the Holy Quran into a foreign language (i.e. Persian).

135. The first time the Holy Qur'an was printed in a Muslim country (by modern machines) was in Persia, in 1866 A.D. (Ref. Ettelaat International, Tehran, 1996).

136.The first melodious translation of the Holy Qur'an (as the original Arabic is also melodious) for a better reading and an easier memorization of its verses, by the non-Arabs, was done by the Persian scholar, Dr. Fazlollah Nikayin - - in the USA(1998).
This translation which is titled, "Qur'an: A Poetic Translation from the Original" is first of its kind, not only in English language, but also in any other translation of the Holy Qur'an, in 1,400 year history of Islam. (Reference: The Ultimate Book 2000, Skokie Publications (Illinois) U.S.A.)

137.The most translated language of the entire Holy Qur'an in the world is Persian---some one thousand translations (Ref. Ettalaat International, Tehran, 1996)

138. The youngest person, who ever memorized the entire Holy Qur'an, was a 5-year-old Persian boy by the name of M.H. Taba-Tabai. (He received a Ph.D. from the Hijaz Islamic College of England, as the youngest scholar of the Holy Qur'an in 1996).

139.The greatest Imam among the majority of Muslims---Imam Abu Hanifah was a Persian.

140.The greatest master of SUFISM (Islamic Mysticism) was Al-Ghazzali, another Persian teacher, (Some orientalists consider him as the most qualified scholar in Islam, aside from the Prophet Mohammad himself).

141.The greatest interpreter of the Holy Quran in Islam, is Tabari, also a Persian.

142. All the earliest collectors and writers of the traditions of Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H.) who preserved and spread his words, were Persians--Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Ibn-e-Majah, Nasai and Abu Dawoud.

143.The man, who finally defeated the western crusaders, liberated Jerusalem from the invaders and saved the Muslims from a total annihilation, was a Kurdish (Persian) man by the name of Salahud Din (Saladin the Magnificent).

144.The greatest grammarian of Arabic language was a Persian--the Sibwaih of Shiraz.

145.The first compiler of Arabic Dictionary was a Persian by the name of Khalil Bin Ahmad.

146.The first scholar who organized, formulated and established the Science of Rhetoric, Elocution and Prosody in Arabic language was a Persian master by the name of Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jorjani (Gorgani).

147.The greatest Philosophical mind after Aristotle, who preserved philosophy from destruction during the Dark Ages (of Europe) was Al-Farabi the Persian. He was a linguist and a music virtuoso. He is known as the Second Master. (After Aristotle).

148.The greatest intellectual during the Middle Ages was Abu Ali Sina (Avicena) the Persian Physician-Philosopher (see International Herald Tribune, Oct. 11, 2001).

149.The first scientific book that was printed in the world, after the invention of the printing machine, was the Cannon of Abu Ali Sina (Avicena)in Persian.